Sinusitis is defined as a condition of inflammation of the paranasal sinuses of which can develop headache as a result of exposure to a cold or flu virus, or an allergic reaction to pollen, mold, dust or smoke, etc.. Sinusitis affects 37 million people each year.
Nutritional supplements against sinus headache
Phytochemicals in food have been found to contain vary antioxidants of which can help not only relieve the symptoms of sinus headache, but also prevent and treat sinus headache.
- Quercetin is a plant-derived flavonoid found in fruits, vegetables, leaves and grains and studies show that quercetin may have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties as a antioxidant, quercetin scavenges free radicals, which damage cell membranes, cause mutation of cells with tampering DNA.
- Rutin is a citrus flavonoid glycoside found in buckwheat and glycoside of the flavonoid quercetin. It inhibits platelet aggregation, decreases the capillary permeability, makes blood thinner and improves circulation. As an antioxidant, it can reduce the cytotoxicity of oxidized LDL cholesterol caused by free radical that lowers the risk of heart diseases.
- Vitamin A occurs in the form retinol and is best known for its function in maintaining the health of cell membrane, hair, skin, bone, teeth and eyes. It also plays an important role as an antioxidant as it scavenges free radicals in the lining of the mouth and lungs; prevents its depletion in fighting the increased free radicals activity by radiation; boosts immune system in controlling of free radicals; prevents oxidation of LDL and enhances the productions of insulin pancreas.
- Vitamin C beside plays an important role in formation and maintenance of body tissues, it as an antioxidant and water soluble vitamin, vitamin C can be easily carry in blood, operate in much of the part of body. By restoring vitamin E, it helps to fight against forming of free radicals. By enhancing the immune system, it promotes against the microbial and viral and irregular cell growth causes of infection and inflammation.
Vitamin C also is a scavenger in inhibiting pollution cause of oxidation.
- Vitamin E is used to refer to a group of fat-soluble compounds that include both tocopherols and tocotrienols discovered by researchers Herbert Evans and Katherine Bishop. It beside is important in protecting muscle weakness, repair damage tissues, lower blood pressure and inducing blood clotting in healing wound, etc, it also is one of powerful antioxidant, by moving into the fatty medium to prevent lipid peroxidation, resulting in lessening the risk of chain reactions by curtailing them before they can starts.
- Vitamin D3, a group of fat-soluble secosteroids is also a membrane antioxidant, with the ability to inhibit iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in liposomes compared to cholesterol.
- Omega 3 fatty acid. Deficiencies of these fatty acids can cause difficulties with learning, thinking, and memory, and can exacerbate problems in the joints and cardiovascular system. Correlations have been shown between low omega-3 levels and a fairly wide variety of ailments, and the list grows longer as more effort goes into exploring these substances.
- EGCG (epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a substance that falls into a chemical category called ‘catechins’, which themselves categorized as ‘flavonoids’ (or ‘bioflavonoids’), and are also examples of ‘polyphenols’. EGCG affect several biological pathways, including growth factor-mediated pathway, the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-dependent pathway, and ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathways.”. Catechins are “antioxidative, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-thrombogenic, and lipid lowering”
- Chrysin is a very good inhibitor of aromatase, the enzyme in the body that converts testosterone into estradiol, and androstenedione into estrone. It is also being investigated for prevention of DNA damage by mutagenic chemicals; decreasing high blood pressure and vascular damage; increasing libido and sperm counts; protecting pancreatic cells from oxidative damage.
- Garlic (allyl sulfides)
Inflammatory diseases and immune disorders
In the examination of the PRRs recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in regulating the innate and adaptive immune responses found that TBK1 kinase can be a target for certain flavonoids such as EGCG, luteolin, quercetin, chrysin, and eriodictyol to regulate TRIF-dependent TLR pathways. This review focuses on the features of PRR signaling pathways and the therapeutic targets of intrinsic and extrinsic regulators in order to provide beneficial strategies for controlling the activity of PRRs and the related inflammatory diseases and immune disorders, according to “Intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of innate immune receptors” by Jeong E, Lee JY.(62)
In the analyzing the structure-activity relationships of 45 flavones, flavonols and their related compounds, luteolin, ayanin, apigenin and fisetin and theirs anti-allergic effects, found that flavonoids inhibit histamine release, synthesis of IL-4 and IL-13 and CD40 ligand expression by basophils. were the strongest inhibitors of IL-4 production with an IC(50) value of 2-5 microM and determined a fundamental structure for the inhibitory activity. The inhibitory activity of flavonoids on IL-4 and CD40 ligand expression was possibly mediated through their inhibitory action on activation of nuclear factors of activated T cells and AP-1., according to “Flavonoids and related compounds as anti-allergic substances” by Kawai M, Hirano T, Higa S, Arimitsu J, Maruta M, Kuwahara Y, Ohkawara T, Hagihara K, Yamadori T, Shima Y, Ogata A, Kawase I, Tanaka T.(63)
Antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic activities
In the examination of the inhibition of inflammation as well as of cancer formation and growth in the lung and colon in animal models., using a tocopherol mixture that is rich in gamma-T (gamma-TmT, which contains 57%gamma-T), found that when given in the diet at 0.3%, gamma-TmT inhibited chemically induced lung tumorigenesis in the A/J mice as well as the growth of human lung cancer cell H1299 xenograft tumors. gamma-TmT also decreased the levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, gamma-H2AX, and nitrotyrosine in tumors. More evident anti-inflammatory and cancer preventive activities of dietary gamma-TmT were demonstrated in mice treated with azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium. These results demonstrate the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic activities of tocopherols, according to “Inhibition of inflammation and carcinogenesis in the lung and colon by tocopherols” by Yang CS, Lu G, Ju J, Li GX.(64)
The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities
In the investigation of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of tocopherols in mice and determination of whether the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is involved in these activities, indicated that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of γ-TmT in the colon are mostly due to the direct action of tocopherols in trapping reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, independent of the antioxidant enzymes and anti-inflammatory proteins that are regulated by Nrf2; however, Nrf2 knockout appears to affect the serum levels of tocopherol metabolites, according to “The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of tocopherols are independent of Nrf2 in mice” by Li G, Lee MJ, Liu AB, Yang Z, Lin Y, Shih WJ, Yang CS.(65)
Allyl sulfides (66)
Irregular cells growth. In a study of “Allyl sulfides modify cell growth.” by Knowles LM, Milner JA. In response to Extensive evidence points to the ability of allyl sulfides from garlic to suppress tumor proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. researchers found that Allyl sulfides are also recognized for their ability to suppress cellular proliferation by blocking cells in the G2/M phase and by the induction of apoptosis. This increase in the G2/M and apoptotic cell populations correlates with depressed p34cdc2 kinase activity, increased histone acetylation, increased intracellular calcium and elevated cellular peroxide production. While impressive pre-clinical data exist about the antineoplastic effects of allyl sulfur compounds, considerably more attention needs to be given to their effects in humans. The composition of the entire diet and a host of genetic/epigenetic factors will likely determine the true benefits that might arise from allyl sulfur compounds from garlic and other Allium foods.
According to the article of “GARLICTHE BOUNTIFUL BULB” by Carmia Borek, Ph.D. posted in Life extension magazine, the author indicated that human studies confirm immune stimulation by garlic. Subjects receiving aged garlic extract at 1800 mg a day for three weeks showed a 155.5% increase in natural killer immune cell activity that kills invaders and cancer cells. Other subjects receiving large amounts of fresh garlic of 35g a day, equivalent to 10 cloves, showed an increase of 139.9%. In six weeks, patients with AIDS receiving aged garlic extract showed an enhancement of natural killer cells from a seriously low level to a normal level.
Antioxidant against oxidation
According to the study of ” Antioxidant Health Effects of Aged Garlic Extract” by Carmia Borek, posted in (Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131:1010S-1015S.)© 2001 The American Society for Nutritional Sciences, researcher found that AGE contains a wide range of antioxidants that can act in synergistic or additive fashion and protect cells against oxidative damage, thus helping to lower the risk of heart disease, stroke, cancer and Alzheimer’s disease and protect against toxic, tissue-damaging effects of ROS-producing radiation, including UV light, drugs used in therapy and chemicals in the environment and industry.